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It also modeled variable damage: The casualties inflicted by an attacker on his enemy were determined using dice. Reisswitz Jr. The Prussian army had recently begun using such maps, which were the product of new advances in cartography and printing.
These maps may have not been available to Reisswitz Sr. The players did not directly control the troop blocks on the game map.
Rather, they wrote down their orders for their troops and gave them to the umpire. The umpire would then move the blocks across the game map according to how he judged the imaginary troops would interpret and carry out the players' orders.
The game also could simulate the fog of war , where the umpire would place on the map blocks only for the troops which were in visual range of both sides.
The umpire kept a mental track of where the hidden troops were located, and only deployed blocks for them when they came into view of the enemy.
The umpire also arbitrated situations which the rules did not explicitly cover, which plugged any gaps in Reisswitz Jr.
Naturally, this required the umpire to be an impartial and experienced officer. In early , the prince invited Reisswitz Jr.
They were impressed and officially endorsed his game as a training tool for the officer corps. The Chief of the General Staff, General von Müffling declared: "this is no ordinary sort of game, this is schooling for war.
I must and will recommend it most warmly to the army. Reisswitz established a workshop by which he could mass-produce and distribute it. In , Reisswitz was transferred away from Berlin to the provincial city of Torgau.
This was interpreted as a banishment: allegedly, he had made offensive remarks about his superiors. This disgrace was detrimental to the progression of his wargame for obvious reasons.
It wasn't until that the game was widely played in the military. Until then, it survived thanks to the efforts of a small number of wargaming clubs.
The earliest of these clubs was the Berlin Wargame Association. These clubs continued to develop Reisswitz's game, but they avoided mentioning his name in their publications.
In , the Berlin Wargame Association published a limited expansion to Reisswitz's system. In , they released a fresh wargaming manual which received a second edition in These updates sought to make Kriegsspiel more realistic, but they also made the rules more complicated.
Wilhelm von Tschischwitz published a Kriegsspiel manual in [c] that incorporated new technological advances such as railroads, telegraph, and breech-loading cannons; and which used conventional gaming dice.
In , Colonel Thilo von Trotha published his own wargaming treatise which went through three editions and had more complicated rules.
The Austro-Prussian War of and the Franco-Prussian War of broke a long period of peace for the German states, which made many officers feel a pressing need to better familiarize themselves with the conduct of war.
This led to a surge in interest in Kriegsspiel among Prussian officers. Lieutenant Wilhelm Jacob Meckel published a treatise in [d] and another in [e] in which he expressed four complaints about the overcomplicated rules of Kriegsspiel : 1 the rules constrain the umpire, preventing him from applying his expertise; 2 the rules are too rigid to realistically model all possible outcomes in a battle, because the real world is complex and ever-changing; 3 the computations for casualties slow down the game and have a minor impact on a player's decisions anyway; 4 few officers are willing to make the effort to learn the rules.
The only things he kept were the dice and the losses tables for assessing casualties. In , General Julius von Verdy du Vernois proposed dispensing with all the rules and tools completely and allowing the umpire to arbitrate the game entirely as he saw fit.
Kriegsspiel attracted little attention outside of Prussia before In , the French general Auguste de Marmont witnessed a Kriegsspiel match in Berlin and commissioned a translation of Reisswitz's manual which was submitted to the French army in March Many credited the Prussian army's superior performance to its wargaming tradition.
The Prussian army did not have any significant advantage in weaponry, numbers, or troop quality, but it was the only army in the world that practiced wargaming.
Baring, based on the system of Wilhelm von Tschischwitz, was published in for the British army and received a royal endorsement.
Livermore published The American Kriegsspiel in In , a group of students and teachers at Oxford University founded the University Kriegspiel [ sic ] Club, which was the world's first recreational wargaming club.
Kriegsspiel has undergone a minor revival in the English-speaking world thanks to translations of the original rulebooks by a British wargaming enthusiast named Bill Leeson.
This summary is based on an English translation  of a wargaming manual written by Georg Heinrich Rudolf Johann von Reisswitz in Reisswitz's wargame was an instructional tool designed to teach battlefield tactics to Prussian officers.
It therefore aimed for maximum realism. The participants were expected to be well-versed in how battles were waged in the early 19th century.
This was particularly true for the umpire, who had to arbitrate situations which the rules did not cover using his own expertise.
Kriegsspiel is an open-ended game with no fixed victory conditions. The objectives of the respective teams are determined by the umpire and typically resemble the goals that an army might pursue in a real battlefield situation, such as expelling the enemy from a certain defensive position or inflicting a certain number of casualties.
The game is played between two teams and one umpire. Either team can have any number of players, but Reisswitz recommended 4 to 6 players each and that they be equal in size.
Only the umpire needs to be fully familiar with the rules, as he manipulates the pieces on the map and computes the outcomes of combat, whereas the players describe what they want their troops to do as if they were issuing orders to real troops in the field.
The map represents the battlefield. Troops on the battlefield are represented on the map by little rectangular pieces.
In Reisswitz's time, these piece were made of lead, but modern reconstructions typically use plastic. Each piece is painted with markings that denoted what kind of unit it represented cavalry, infantry, etc.
The dimensions of each piece matched the dimensions of the actual troop formation it represented, to the same scale as the map.
Thus, each piece occupied an area on the map proportional to the space the actual troop formation would occupy in the field.
The umpire establishes the scenario of the game. He decides what the tactical objectives of the respective teams are, what troops they are provided with and how those troops are initially deployed on the battlefield.
The umpire will then assign each team the appropriate troop pieces for their units. If there are multiple players in a team, the teammates will divide control of their troops and establish a hierarchy of command in a way that should resemble Prussian military doctrine, subject to the umpire's approval.
Players do not speak to each other. Instead, they communicate with their teammates and the umpire through written messages. This is so that the enemy team cannot hear their plans.
This is also so that the umpire can delay or block messages if he feels the circumstances on the battlefield warrant it.
In the early 19th century, officers in the field communicated over long distances through messengers there was no radio in those days. Messengers needed time to reach the recipient, and could be delayed or intercepted by the enemy.
The umpire can simulate this problem by holding on to a player's message for a round or two before giving it to the recipient, never giving it, or even give it to the enemy.
Likewise, the players command their imaginary troops through written orders, which they submit to the umpire.
The players are not allowed to manipulate the pieces on the map themselves — that is for the umpire to do. The umpire will move the pieces across the map according to how he judges the imaginary troops would interpret and execute the players' orders.
The umpire places pieces on the map only for troops which he judges are visible to both sides. If a unit disappears from the enemy army's line of sight, the umpire will remove the piece from the map and keep it aside.
Naturally, this means the participants must keep a mental track of the positions of troops whose pieces are not on the map.
The players themselves may be represented on the battlefield with pieces that represent officers and their bodyguards. The positions of the officers on the battlefield affects how the players can communicate with each other and the troops.
Officers can be slain in battle like any other soldier, and if that happens the player ceases to participate in the game. The course of the game is divided into rounds.
A round represents two minutes of time. Thus, in a round the troops can perform as many actions as they realistically could in two minutes of time, and Reisswitz's manual provides some guidelines.
There is, for instance, a table which lists movement rates for the various troop types under different conditions, e.
The umpire uses dice to determine how much damage that attacking units inflict upon the enemy. The dice designed by Reisswitz are of unique design, with each face displaying a multitude of numbers and symbols that denoted different damage scores, measured in points, for different situations.
There are five dice:. Each unit has a point value which represents how many points of damage the unit in question can absorb before "dying".
In modern gaming parlance, this "point value" is analogous to " hitpoints ". The number of hitpoints a unit has is determined by the type of unit, the number of men in it, and their formation.
For instance, a cavalry squadron with 90 riders has 60 hitpoints, and a line infantry half-battalion with men has 90 hitpoints.
Individual cavalry riders are "tougher" than infantrymen 1. In most cases, a piece is simply removed from the map when it has lost all its hitpoints.
An exception to this is line infantry. Line infantry had a special function in early 19th century warfare. On the battlefield, infantry stood close together in long lines facing the enemy.
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